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Assessment

"The SPF Process" by Center on the Family. All rights reserved.

Assessment

When trying to address problems in our communities, it is important that we begin by attempting to get a full understanding of the problem. If we start to design solutions without this full understanding, then we run the risk of missing something important or developing ineffective strategies for change. In the Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) model, this first step, in which communities attempt to fully understand a target problem, is called "assessment" or "needs assessment."

During this stage, staff and community members systematically gather information about the target problem. For instance, it is good to try to understand how many people in the community experience the problem, what factors might indicate a higher risk for developing the problem, and whether the problem is a symptom of some larger issue that also needs to be addressed.

Other things that are important to consider when trying to understand community problems are:

  • Frequency: How often does the problem occur?
  • Duration: How long has the problem lasted?
  • Scope: How widespread is the problem?
  • Severity: How much does the problem impact the functioning of individuals, families, and communities?
  • Equity: Does the problem impact some groups more than others? Does it represent an issue of inequality or injustice in a community?
  • Perception: Does the community see the issue as a problem? Do the different parts of a community agree on the definition of the problem?

In addition to gathering information about the magnitude of the problem and its potential causes, a needs assessment also attempts to gather information about how a community might be able to best address the problem. What tools already exist in the community and how might they be used to address the issue? What additional tools are needed to address the problem? Who should to be included in a collaboration to address the problem?

Often social problems, such as substance abuse, are very complicated issues to address because they are influenced by so many different factors. These factors include individual choices and behaviors, family interactions, school and peer influences, community norms and practices, and public laws and policies (among others). Because these problems impact whole communities and because whole communities can have an impact on these problems, it is often important for many different sectors within a community to collaborate together in their attempts to address the problem.

Exploring about how a community perceives the problem is, therefore, often very important. The SPF process emphasizes the need for the community as a whole to engage in the systematic assessment process. This means bringing together researchers, policymakers, program providers, and community members to collaborate together in order to gather information about the problem. In this way a community can develop a shared definition of the problem, a unified understanding of the important factors that impact the problem, and can then develop a comprehensive plan to address the problem as a team.

Tools

 

References

Berkowitz, B. (2013). Chapter 3. Section 5: Analyzing Community Problems. Retrieved from The Community Tool Box: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/section_1017.htm
 
Dorn, H. (1951). Methods of measuring incidence and prevalence of disease. American Journal of Public Health, 41, 271-78.
 
SAMHSA. (2015, October 1). Criteria for analyzing assessment data. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/tools-learning-resources/criteria-analyzing-assessment-data
 
SAMHSA. (2015, September 29). Step 1: Assess needs. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/applying-strategic-prevention-framework/step1-assess-needs
 
Sheppard, K., and Langevin, D. (2003). A framework for understand ‘evidence’ in preventions research and programs. Prevention Science, 4(3), 137-153.

August 2020

Aug 14 Fri
Staying Engaged During COVID-19 & Beyond

Learning Objectives:
1. Explain how local conditions have changed with COVID-19.
2. Discuss how prevention providers are responding with key messages relevant to communities, families, and schools.
3. Share what other coalitions and prevention programs are implementing in response to COVID-19.

Location

Zoom

Aug 18 Tue
Optimism Based on Compassion, Forgiveness, and Gratitude presented by Dr. Fred Luskin

Join us for a talk by Dr. Luskin that focuses on optimism. True and lasting optimism is a hard earned approach that leads to a resilient life. It depends on our ability to be grateful for what we have, understand that our difficulties are part of the human experience, and forgive ourselves and others for disappointing and hurting us.

Location

Zoom

Aug 18 Tue
Ethics in Prevention for Maui County Providers

​This free, three-day virtual training will cover the topic of ethics in the substance abuse prevention field.  The training will cover key terminology, the six principles in the Prevention Code of Ethics, and a decision-making process to use when faced with an ethical dilemma.

Location

Zoom

Aug 19 Wed
Location

Zoom